Augmented intelligence or cognitive computing is used to refer to systems that are capable of solving problems without requiring human assistance. Cognitive computing involves self-learning systems that use data mining, pattern recognition and natural language processing to mimic the way the human brain works. Instead of automating the way we already conduct business, one attempts to augment the best of what the human brain can do with new application capabilities.
What stands out when talking of cognitive computing and in contrast to common machine learning and AI is the ability to embrace context and adapt to it. It means stateful (and through this, personal) inference and because of this more interactive than standard AI.
The prototypical example of cognitive computing is found in healthcare where personalized treatments necessarily use personal context and history as well as ML. It deals with patients with knowledge of their history, symptoms, variations and in function of time. At best, it embraces emotional input as well.